Hopfield Networks addendum: Brain-State-in-a-Box model

The Brain-State-in-a-Box is neural model proposed by Anderson, Silverstein, Ritz and Jones in 1977, that presents very strong analogies with Hopfield networks (read the previous post about them). The structure of the network is similar: recurrent, fully-connected with symmetric weights and non-null auto-recurrent connections. All neurons are bipolar (-1 and…

ML Algorithms Addendum: Hopfield Networks

Hopfield networks (named after the scientist John Hopfield) are a family of recurrent neural networks with bipolar thresholded neurons. Even if they are have replaced by more efficient models, they represent an excellent example of associative memory, based on the shaping of an energy surface. In the following picture, there’s…

Quickprop: an almost forgotten neural training algorithm

Standard Back-propagation is probably the best neural training algorithm for shallow and deep networks, however, it is based on the chain rule of derivatives and an update in the first layers requires a knowledge back-propagated from the last layer. This non-locality, especially in deep neural networks, reduces the biological plausibility…

ML Algorithms Addendum: Hebbian Learning

Hebbian Learning is one the most famous learning theories, proposed by the Canadian psychologist Donald Hebb in 1949, many years before his results were confirmed through neuroscientific experiments. Artificial Intelligence researchers immediately understood the importance of his theory when applied to artificial neural networks and, even if more efficient algorithms…

Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model in Python

The Hodgkin-Huxley model (published on 1952 in The Journal of Physiology [1]) is the most famous spiking neuron model (also if there are simpler alternatives like the “Integrate-and-fire” model which performs quite well). It’s made up of a system of four ordinary differential equations that can be easily integrated using several…